Welcome back to the world of
Enumerable my friend. As Rubyists we are used to
spend a lot of time looking at and working with this module (even if you’re not
entirely aware). This time we will be looking at a somewhat hidden feature of
most of its methods, they can be used without a block and have a return value
that is itself an enumerator.
Here’s how you’re probably used to iterating over an
Array in Ruby:
[1, 2, 3].each do |num| puts num * 2 end ## => 2 ## => 4 ## => 6
This is great and definitely should be your first solution for this problem, but in some situation you might find it useful to break this process apart. You might want to do part of iteration and continue it later, or have the array in one place and the method that operates on it somewhere else.
Regardless of your reasons, you can also iterate over an
Array like so:
iter = [1, 2, 3].each def double(num) num * 2 end puts double(iter.next) # => 2 puts double(iter.next) # => 4 puts double(iter.next) # => 6 puts double(iter.next) # => StopIteration: iteration reached an end
StopIteration is an exception that gets raised when there is nothing else in
the enumerator. This is something that gets hidden away by the block syntax, so
that you don’t have to deal with it every time.
What we did with
each is applicable to many other methods on
sort_by. I feel that this is a feature in
the language that you may never use, but it is good to be aware of.
map is a method that can be used to go over each element of an
Enumerable, perform some operation on it and return a new
Array with the
results of performing that operation. It sounds more complicated that it really
is. Here’s an example:
result = [1, 2, 3].map do |num| num * 2 end p result # => [2, 4, 6]
The difference between
each is that
each always returns the object
in its initial state, but
map returns a new
Array with the modifications we
wanted done to it.
Now, what if we wanted to do something similar to what we’ve just done but
instead of always multiplying the number by
2, we wanted to multiply it by its
index in the
We know there’s a method called
each_with_index, we could try to use that with
Array to store the result of each of the steps. On the other
hand, that sound a lot like
map, I bet there’s a
map_with_index we can use!
Well, unfortunately there isn’t… What if we create our own "
result = [1, 2, 3].map.with_index do |num, index| num * index end p result # => [0, 2, 6]
Wow, it worked! And it reads pretty well, but how come we can do this? If we
irb and run this:
> [1, 2, 3].map.class.ancestors ## => [Enumerator, Enumerable, Object, Kernel, BasicObject]
We can see that
Enumerator is itself
Enumerable, which means it has the
with_index method, but
more importantly than that, it means we can compose this methods at will. And
that my friends is why there’s no way not to love the
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